How to Implement Authorization using Gates in Laravel 6

Published on January 24, 2020 2 min read

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In this article, I’m going to share how to implement authorization using gates in Laravel 6. Let’s start:

Table of Contents

  1. Install Laravel and Basic Configurations
  2. Generate Auth Scaffolding
  3. Add Role to User Table
  4. Create Custom Gates
  5. Use Gates in View
  6. Use Gates in Controller
  7. Use in Route with Middleware

Step 1 : Install Laravel and Basic Configurations

Each Laravel project needs this thing. That’s why I have written an article on this topic. Please see this part from here: Install Laravel and Basic Configurations.

Step 2 : Generate Auth Scaffolding

To generate auth scaffolding, we need to install the laravel/ui package:

composer require laravel/ui

Now we’re able to generate auth scaffolding in Laravel 6 using this command:

php artisan ui bootstrap --auth

To see good UI, we need to run this last command:

npm install && npm run dev

Step 3 : Add Role to User Table

After setting up basic configurations, let’s add role column in the user name. We’re going to define 2 roles: admin & user. Run this command to create a migration file:

php artisan make:migration add_role_column_to_users_table

Go to database/migrations folder and open the newly created migration file and update the up() function like this:

public function up()
{
    Schema::table('users', function (Blueprint $table) {
        $table->enum('role', ['admin', 'user'])->default('user');
    });
}

We’ve set the user role as default. Now migrate the migrations:

php artisan migrate

Let’s insert 2 dummy user data using Laravel Tinker:

# open tinker console
php artisan tinker

# insert 2 data
factory(App\User::class, 2)->create();

After inserting data, from the phpMyAdmin set role to the dummy users.

Step 4 : Create Custom Gates

Now we’re going to define 2 gates for the 2 roles. Navigate to app/Providers folder and open AuthServiceProvider.php file & let’s set gates in boot() function.

AuthServiceProvider.php
public function boot()
{
    $this->registerPolicies();

    // define admin role
    Gate::define('isAdmin', function($user) {
        return $user->role == 'admin';
    });

    // define user role
    Gate::define('isUser', function($user) {
        return $user->role == 'user';
    });
}

Step 5 : Use Gates in View

We can use gates in view easily. The syntax is:

@can('isAdmin')
    Your role: Admin!
@elsecan('isUser')
    Your role: User!
@endcan

Let’s set gates in the dashboard blade file. Open resources/views/home.blade.php and update with this code:

@extends('layouts.app')

@section('content')
    <div class="container">
        <div class="row justify-content-center">
            <div class="col-md-8">
                <div class="card">
                    <div class="card-header">Dashboard</div>

                    <div class="card-body">
                        @if (session('status'))
                            <div class="alert alert-success" role="alert">
                                {{ session('status') }}
                            </div>
                        @endif

                        You are logged in.

                        @can('isAdmin')
                            Your role: Admin!
                        @elsecan('isUser')
                            Your role: User!
                        @endcan

                    </div>
                </div>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
@endsection

Admin role:

User role:

Step 6 : Use Gates in Controller

Like the view, we can use gates in the controller too. I’m showing some uses.

public function functionName()
{
	  // allows
    if (Gate::allows('isAdmin')) {
        dd('Admin area');
    } else {
        dd('Your role is not Admin');
    }

	  // denies
    if (Gate::denies('isAdmin')) {
        dd('Your role is not Admin');
    } else {
        dd('Admin area');
    }
}

Step 7 : Use in Route with Middleware

Like view & controller, we’re able to use gates in route with middleware. Here’s the example:

Route::get('settings', function () {
    return "This route is for admin role only";
})->middleware('can:isAdmin');

Route::get('profile', function () {
    return "This route is for user role only";
})->middleware('can:isUser');
The tutorial is over. Thank you. 🙂

Author

Hey, I'm Md Obydullah. I build open-source projects and write on Laravel, Linux server, modern JavaScript and more on web development.

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